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Poster Sessions

  1. Conversion of Sawdust into Acid Hydrolyzate Having High Concentration of Sugars
    Shantelle I. Hughes, Jackson State University,

  2. Using Lipids From Industrial Waste Sources to Produce Biodiesel
    Tracy Benson, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Rafael Hernandez

  3. Oxidation of Oleic Acid in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
    Darrell L. Sparks, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Rafael Hernandez

  4. Production of a Low-Cost Biodiesel Using Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge
    Stephen Dufreche, Mississippi State University Advisor: Rafael Hernandez

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Tall Oil
    David Neaves, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Rafael Hernandez

  6. Factors Contributing to Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Reduction during Fixed-Film Anaerobic Digestion of Flushed Dairy Manure
    J. A. Davis, S. R. Farrah, and A. C. Wilkie, University of Florida

  7. Tar and Particulate Removal From a Novel Gasification Unit
    Monty Singletary, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Mark Bricka

  8. Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Blood types and Dependence on Age
    Prashant Reuben Daggolu, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Adrienne Minerick

  9. Oil Stability Index as a Measure of Lipid and Biodiesel Quality
    John McGillivray, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Juan L. Silva

  10. Experimental Study of a Downdraft Gasifier
    Lin Wei, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. William Batchelor

  11. Effects of Selected By-Products of an Acid Hydrolyzate on Cel Growth and Ethanol Fermentation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
    Sean Cook, Jackson State University Advisor: Dr. Huey-Min Hwang

  12. Algal Biodiesel: A Renaissance
    Nisha Pandey, Jackson State University Advisor: Dr. P. C. Yuan

  13. Potential Feed Stocks for the Production of Ethanol
    David Busby, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Randall Little

  14. Stability of Bio-Oil
    Javeed Mohammad, Mississippi State University Advisor: Dr. Mark Bricka

  15. Ethanol: The Alternative Fuel
    Thalumus Marshall, Jackson State University Advisor: Dr. P.C. Yuan


1. Conversion of Sawdust into Acid Hydrolyzate Having High Concentration of Sugars

Shantelle I. Hughes 1, A. Woods 1, Y. Zhang 2, J. Gao 2, J. Ntoni 2, M. Begonia 2, H. Hwang 2, and K. Lee 1

1 Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217

2 Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217

Abstract:

Acid hydrolysis of waste biomass containing appreciable percentages of cellulose and hemi-cellulose has been underdevelopment over the past several years. Its conversion into ethanol is a two step process: acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. Several efforts have been made for producing acid hydrolyzates, but it needs high concentration of sulfuric acid or specially designed instrument like an extruder. These systems show the hydrolyzate has low pH or other inhibitors for the fermentation steps. The objective of this study is to produce the acid hydrolyzate containing high concentration of sugar while using less amount of sulfuric acid without the specially designed equipment. We performed acid hydrolysis on sawdust from pine wood with less amount of sulfuric acid in the glass flask. The condition of hydrolysis was optimized for maximizing the concentration of sugars.

The optimized condition of hydrolysis is reflux for 1 day at 110 oC with sulfuric acid (4-5% overall). Each gram of saw dust gives about 100 mg of sugars in the process. Result showed that the acid hydrolyzate contains glucose, xylose galactose, arabinose and mannose. Each batch was analyzed for the sugars by HPLC.

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2. Renewable Fuels and Chemicals Laboratory, Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University1, University of Louisiana, Lafayette2

Tracy Benson1, Rafael Hernandez1 , Todd French1, and Mark Zappi2

Abstract:

This research develops a new biofuel feedstock from wastes associated with the butchering and slaughtering of food animals. Bovine and swine slaughterhouses, poultry processors, and dairy products manufacturing use water for cleaning and processing of foods. These processing wastewaters and meat saw residues contain fats, oils, and greases (FOG’s) that can be transformed into biodiesel. This work investigates the lipid potential of specific waste streams and develops a method to capture these lipids.

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3. Oxidation of Oleic Acid in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Darrell Sparks, Rafael Hernandez, Mark Zappi*, Todd French, Hossein Toghiani, Rebecca K. Toghiani, and Earl Alley

Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Renewable Fuels and Chemicals Laboratory, Mississippi State University, *University of Louisiana at Lafayette

Abstract:

Many animal fats and vegetable oils contain unsaturated fatty acids, which can be oxidized to form diacids and epoxides. These chemicals are used to formulate herbicides, detergents, plasticizers, lubricants, paints, and other useful products. One of the most common unsaturated fatty acids is oleic acid, and it can be oxidized with ozone to produce azelaic acid and pelargonic acid. However, if the reaction occurs in a supercritical fluid medium, such as carbon dioxide, then it may be possible to effect the reaction both kinetically and mechanistically. In this poster, the theory and justification of oxidizing oleic in supercritical carbon dioxide will be given.

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4. Production of a Low-Cost Biodiesel Using Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge

Stephen Dufreche, Rafael Hernandez, Todd French, Darrell Sparks, and Mark Zappi

Renewable Fuels and Chemicals Laboratory, Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University

Abstract:

The production of biodiesel has received considerable attention throughout the world in the past few years. Its advantages relating to the environment and reduced dependence on fossil fuels are helping to make “Biodiesel” a household name. Cost at the pump, however, remains the largest barrier to widespread biodiesel adoption. Governmental credits can help in the short run but are not an answer for long-term adoption of biodiesel. An analysis of soy biodiesel, the most common in the U.S., shows that over 70% of production cost is due to the feedstock. This, therefore, represents the best area to cut costs. Researchers at Mississippi State University have recently discovered a unique lipid feedstock in the form of municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge. Since this new feedstock is currently considered a waste, it has potential to result in the production of biodiesel at overall costs only half that of most other biodiesel products. Additionally, the amount of wastewater sludge produced in the U.S. means that this feedstock has the capacity to support well over 1 billion gallons of biodiesel production per year. This poster will give an overview of the production process, preliminary results, and future work.

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5. Production of Biodiesel from Tall Oil

David Neaves, Rafael Hernandez, PhD., Todd French, PhD., Linda McFarland, Earl Alley, and Mark E. Zappi

* , PhD. P.E., Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Renewable and Chemicals Labatoratory, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, University of Louisiana, Lafayette*

Abstract:

The relatively high price of biodiesel is due to the high price of the feedstock. Soybean oil is the largest contributor to the production of biodiesel and is a large portion of the processing costs. As the demand for biodiesel increases the price of biodiesel will increase and biodiesel producers will need to expand their feedstocks. Mississippi yields a large quantity of biomass-based lipid feedstocks. Tall oil is a by-product of the pulp and paper industry. It is currently fractionated and used in commercial products such as: inks, paper sizing agents, and specialty chemicals. The composition of tall oil produced in the southeastern U.S. is roughly 45% free fatty acids. These fatty acids have the potential to be utilized as a feedstock for the production of a lower cost biodiesel.

This poster will present the analysis of tall oil as a feedstock for biodiesel. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) samples are subjected to ASTM 6751 tests to quantify the properties of the mixtures. Gas chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scatter detection is used to assess the free fatty acid, and methyl ester profiles. The data are used to assess the potential for tall oil lipid feedstocks and quality of the biodiesel.

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6. Factors Contributing to Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Reduction during Fixed-Film Anaerobic Digestion of Flushed Dairy Manure

J. A. Davis, S. R. Farrah, and A. C. Wilkie, Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida

Abstract:

The University of Florida Dairy Research Unit utilizes a fixed-film anaerobic digester for stabilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater (FDMW). The system is operated at a hydraulic retention time of < 3 days and ambient temperature. Our previous work demonstrated the ability of the system to reduce indicator and pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that contribute to indicator and pathogenic bacteria reduction during digestion in the fixed-film system. Whole and soluble fractions of FDMW and anaerobically digested FDMW samples were compared for proliferation of indicator and pathogenic bacteria. The presence of indigenous microflora (both anaerobic and facultative) in the whole fractions was found to adversely impact the proliferation of fecal coliforms, Enterococcus spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. Decimation of S. aureus was observed in the soluble fraction of anaerobically digested FDMW whereas the organism was able to proliferate in FDMW. Supplementation of the soluble fraction of anaerobically digested FDMW with 0.09% tryptic soy broth resulted in proliferation of S. aureus. This finding suggests that reduction of this pathogenic organism may be due to starvation caused by removal of necessary nutrients by competing indigenous microflora.

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7. Tar and Particulate Removal From a Novel Gasification Unit

Monty Singletary

Graduate Research Assistant, Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Phone: 662-325-7725, mail: jms12@msstate.edu

Abstract:

The Mississippi Ethanol Project is a comprehensive, multi-departmental effort to develop an economical conversion of biomass (in the form of sawdust) to ethanol. This project is a continuation of a pilot scale research project for the conversion of biomass to methanol, located in Winona, MS. In order to study the system more fully, a 1/10 scale pre-pilot plant was built at Mississippi State University's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (formerly D.I.A.L.). The project utilizes a novel gasification unit, and, as such, presents a unique problem in the area of particulate and condensable hydrocarbon removal. Since the producer gas is to be treated biologically, the large quantities of these contaminants produced in the reaction must be removed almost entirely before final conversion can be performed. This poster outlines the steps that were taken to characterize these residual compounds, the potential removal technologies to be evaluated in the pre-pilot system, and the problems that have been encountered thus far in our research.

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8. Dielectrophoretic Characterization of Blood types and Dependence on Age

Prashant Reuben Daggolu, prd40@msstate.edu

Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Box 9595, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762

Abstract:

The field of electrokinetics has grown exponentially over the past decade. One subset of electrokinetics is dielectrophoresis, which is the use of a non-uniform AC field to manipulate and characterize cells. This tool has potential uses in medical and biological applications. In the present work, human blood of types A+, B+, AB+, and O+ are explored in a dielectrophoretic field within a microdevice. Microdevices are a type of “Lab on a Chip” technology, which will one day enable total sample analysis requiring small volumes and inexpensive, portable technology.

The dielectrophoretic field is generated within the microdevice using platinum electrodes positioned 150 microns apart in a perpendicular configuration to create a non-uniform AC field. Whole blood samples are diluted using Phosphate Buffer Saline in 1:60 V:V ratio and introduced into the microdevice via sample ports. An AC current of 1 MHz and 5 Vpp (volts peak to peak) is applied. The red blood cells polarize in the electric field and interact with each other to form pearl chains along the electric field lines. The preferential movement of these cells is dependent on blood type and cell age. The movement of the erythrocytes is recorded via video microscopy at 10 second intervals for 4 min. The images are analyzed to get the X,Y position, cell radius, cell area, bound width and bound height of the cells using a Axiovision 4.2 software. The images are then divided into 6 equal sized sextants to analyze the cell position distribution in the field using a MATLAB program. The resulting data is plotted for each blood type as a function of days.

The characterization of the blood types and age using this technique would lead to portable medical diagnostic device capable of detecting blood type and health in terms of age. This is useful in times of medical emergency for rapid blood typing before a blood transfusion or other treatment. The research also sets the foundation for inline characterization of cells or separation of cells types in biomass units such as fermentors.

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9. Oil Stability Index as a Measure of Lipid and Biodiesel Quality

John McGillivray, Juan L. Silva, Rafael Hernandez

1 Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion and 2School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University

Abstract:

Oil quality and stability, as well as biodiesel, are important measures for prediction of feedstock quality and biodiesel shelf-life. The iodine number has been the common method of determining oil and fat stability. This only measures the potential of a lipid to be oxidized. The peroxide value is a measure of oxidative rancidity by measuring the concentration of peroxides formed in the initial oxidation stage. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test is widely used to measure oxidation of fat in meats and other products. This is a measure of the final stages of lipid oxidation. The oil stability index, OSI is similar to the active oxygen method, AOM. It measures the rise in conductivity of deionized water when volatile acids from the sample are passed through the water. This is a rapid and fairly reliable test, widely accepted in Europe and by AOCS. The induction time or period, IP, is a function of oil concentration, heating temperature and air flow rate. Our results have shown that air flow rate has a very minor role in the IP of lipids, with some exceptions. However, temperature has a profound effect on IP. Thus, there is a need to standardize a OSI test for determining stability of lipids (feedstocks) and biodiesel.

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